Gender and Journalism


The Paper Presented on Lectureship Upsala University of Swedia


This paper is inspired by David E, Kleimm`s study of Paul Ricoeur entitled The Hermeneutical theory of Paul Ricoeur : A Constructive Analysis. Taking this book as model, the present dissertation modestly attempt to analyze systematically theory of hermeneutics. The question of Public Issues always relating by Writers, Man or writer has an extraordinary status over other creatures, because he has knowledge can communicate with the reality trough his idea. So he has responsibility to disclose the reality. Human scientific knowledge appears because of the systemic and methodologically of human curiosity.

Argumentatively, man develops the scientific knowledge because he is not ready to face the life, furthermore relationship between man and his nature is not only instinct and absolutely loyalty but man also uses an initiative element in relationship with nature, historical genesis of them, their ideological and psychological functions, their semantic and anthropological limits and inadequacies (1994:30)



  
What Journalism wishes to accomplish by this deconstruction is to understand the reason for the dominance of the Capitalism views in Western press and its never limitations, and to uncover other conceptions that have been forgotten. Defending himself against the charge of using Western ideas and methods in this studies, Journalism maintains that the concept of a human and historical text with regard to ethics code is to be found in the public truth itself. He refers to the concept of the feminism or gender mainstream, starting that this concept implies that the concept hermeneutic in the journalism is the initiative implicates human creativities.

Beside that man develops that scientific knowledge because he has to cope with some basic universal questions such as `what writer is`, `why media have to be born and to be died`, `how writer makes decision `and `what the goal of media is`. Disclosing the reality means disclosing the screen that covers the truths generally man has five instruments, are sense, instinct, mind, imagination and intuition. 

Sense is an instrument to get the physical truth , instinct is an instrument to defend and to survive human life as an individual and social being. Mind is an instrument to lead human consciousness to the relationship between cause and result in a decision or an event. I criticizes Westerners for the ways they have portrayed the status of women or women`s status. Woman - Man is equality in the opportunity of news. The assumption that woman was underestimate and object of news was cause of the different her rights and inferiority on the journalism basically is not true and except from rational reasoning.

The human knowledge levels are from ordinary knowledge to scientific knowledge and then philosophical knowledge. Journalist along with his mind has an ability to make the truth to sense and instinct perfectly, furthermore man can also go to the supreme trough his mind. Journalist who has mind has responsibility for what he has done. Journalist used the mind as measurement to determine whether some one receives reward or punishment. Other creatures have no responsibility for what they have decided to their action because they do not have mind, more ever man who does not use his mind does not have responsibility for all of what he has done or decided.

So imagination is an other special power of man beside mind. Human imagination can be only a blank vision but if man uses it along with mind, he can do some creativities and leadership with his knowledge perfectly. We can see the power of imagination in human civilization. Civilization is not only a result of the mind creativity but also the creativity of human imagination.

All the instrument above on the scale of das sollen constitute the basic of the structure of human scientific knowledge. The structure of instrument brings to the structure of knowledge. Every stage of knowledge has different stage of the truth. The knowledge from the sense has the lowest stage in the structure of knowledge. On the other side the capability to obtain the truth,

the highest level in the structure of human knowledge. The lower level of knowledge only finds the more uncompleted and more unstructured truth, moreover generally the lower levels of human knowledge just finds the hazier truth. It can be seen in the knowledge from the sense and the instinct. So the higher level of knowledge has to cover and complete the lower level of knowledge. Knowledge of mind has the highest level in the dimension of human being. Fundamentally human mind has potential to understand the right structure of value and truth, properly man along with his mind has capabilities to find the truth in news.

Besides above, motivation about integrated my mind and knowledge. The last instrument is intuitive of journalist it is about responsibility to knowledge, This is human responsibility to the mind influenced to empirical of welfare, because I have mind if discover something. I think that the empirical human scientific knowledge is the top of human understanding. Furthermore I think that I can use the method, that already all uses it to obtain the empirical scientific knowledge, to discover the screen of the truth. It is true that in the level of human mind, man has already arranged his knowledge clearly and structurally.

But properly scientific method from some kind of science depends on the formal object of type of science itself. On the other side the application of some kind of method will bring the object formal which is fit with the method. Journalist can not discover the screen of truth of human being by using a method that is used to discover the screen of truth of an animal but interpretation both people and their environment.

The object material of human knowledge are the reality it self. The reality has different stage, the reality has four stages, physical chemist, bios, physic and the last is humanity stage. The quality of truth does not only depend on the level and subject or human understanding such as sense perception or rational understanding but the quality of truth also depends on the stage of the reality of the object material.

The stage of the reality of the object material founded by level of reality from physical reality to become human reality, influenced of the stages of human knowledge consequences. The lower level of truth brings the human mind to discover the screen of the higher level of truth, the higher level of scientific knowledge need the lower one as substratum. This is my perspective pushes the consciousness to move the higher level to obtain - the consciousness to move the higher level to obtain the truth in structure values in the Epistemology. 

This oral discourse was then transformed into a text or written. The transformation from oral discourse to written text, three important implications: radical changes to linguistic and semiotic process in the hermeneutics discourse, the attribution of the written text and the last the increasing role of written culture at the expense of oral culture. (1998:75).

In the light of these three levels, ignoring the successive processes of oral transmission and its transformation into a text, on the other hand, the role of oral discourse in the formation of the text makes it possible to be interpreted. Therefore, one as to consider these three levels especially the shift from the oral discourse to the written. In the former, particular attention has to be paid to the role of metaphor and semiotic structure discourse have to be taken into consideration in the process of interpretation.

I admit that his approach, which he calls `anthropology of the past`, following the French scholars, Alphonse Dupront and Jacques Le Goff, is still in a state of formation, and still at the level of theory (1985: 43-44). However this theoretical concept, which incorporates linguistic and anthropological analysis has been successfully implemented by three levels interpretation mind, imagination and intuition.

This approach begins with the archaeological excavation of the meaning of a word, its genealogy through history from the past till the present. It further analyzes this word as it is used in the feminism paradigm, by relating it to the socio-political context of the ninth-century in journalism in Western.

The analysis of the word is extended to any works of journalism such as collections of traditions, biographies or companion which discuss the word in question. Here we can see the influence of the post-structuralism scholar, especially Michel Foucault, ( 1972: 45). The latter, in his The Archeology of Knowledge has suggested that an object of discourse `exists under the positive conditions of a complex group of relations. It is therefore necessary, Foucault suggests, to analyze an object in its relation to other objects and to define its difference.

He argues that the purpose of this archeological analysis is not determine the truthfulness or untruthfulness of given account, but rather to deconstruct the social imaginaire which has been formed and structured by the phenomenon. It seems that it is on this basis that deconstruction theory lies: that is, to consider the social imaginaire as the field of study.
I find that this kind of approach, which studies of the journalism literature as the result of the believer`s imaginaire, not only fact and reporting it is richer than the philological approach that searches for lexical and thematic influences. On the practical level news verses related to contemporary issues, such as the role of women, for instance.

The Hermeneutical Theory of an Analytical Study and Methods to Interpreting the Public Issues and Truth Claim, Perspective Feminism of Journalism in Europe may be seen from each ideas in philosophy and development, socio political, historical context in which they were written and demonstrates to what extent he was critical to journalism discourse. It attempt to read his works chronologically by referring to his context which may have colored them.

The contexts is Culture where most important element of the journalism studies in the contexts not only does this factor provide a window into the dialectical relationship between text and the circumstance that gave rise to it, but also serves as referent for later readers during their interpretation of the text and contexts. Contexts is composed of text and the prefix con which literally means with the text, When discussing genealogy from media for deconstruction, Definition is the process of analyzing and revealing the historical relationships among truth, knowledge and powers

But when we have a discussion about values this research The Hermeneutical Theory of an Analytical Study and Methods to Interpreting the Public Issues and Truth Claim, Perspective Feminism of Journalism in Europe Publication though unfortunately must be compromise by helplessness and a sharp pressure politics and interest about women equally and interpreting by critics and deconstructive.

I propose to study the tradition of the literary interpretation of Journalism in Europe that Journalism is study a literary text and that as such it can be analyzed like any other text. In order to show on what basis newspaper journalism in Europe might be considered as a literary text, and understandable people issue in Europe only reports and texts. I offer in the general discussion of what literature and literary interpretation are.

The second past discusses the literary interpretation of the texts starting from journalist of feminism until deconstruction by studying systematically his notion revelation and his theory of interpretation about postmodernism press. I look here at how it is applied to industry of feminism press as reflected in ideology then in order to gauge the contribution and originality of his theory. 

The research comes to a close with a description of hermeneutics method of interpretation and his contribution to the modern approach to news, critics and general journalist though in the world. An analysis of theory of interpretation about women within the tradition of the literary interpretation of that modern journalist scholars in general.

It furthermore discusses systematically his theory of interpretation starting with theory of the texts who had attempts to analyze by Michel Foucault too which has to some extent been taken for granted until now. The most important contribution in this regard is its attempt to study his theory of interpretation using the general theory of interpretation in hermeneutics and public opinion interpretation.

I can discuss more deep about the response from people in Europe and ideas especially the reasons and motifs behind these response constitute another contribution. I look contrary to the thesis of anti post modernism journalist theory who argues that hermeneutical problem fundamentally different that certain principles development in Asia journalist interpretation.

And demonstrate that work of literature or investigation journalism that can be subjected, discontinuity and different methods to any approach. It is on the basis of this presupposition that proponents of literary interpretation and hermeneutics are increasingly turning their attention to the truth claim and alignment or analyzing in news and exciting ways.


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